Robert Hand

Robert Hand

Arabic/Islamic civilization is one of three cultures that succeeded the classical period of Greece and Rome. However, this civilization, unlike the Byzantine Greek and the Latin West, did not just inherit from the classical civilizations of Greece and Rome; it also inherited a great deal from the empire that it had completely conquered, the Sassanian Persian.

The last and largest of the great middle eastern empires before Alexander the Great was the Persian Empire, often referred to as the Achaemenid Empire (after a Greek form of the name of the dynasty that ruled it). Alexander the Great conquered it in 331 B.C.E. and the area was subsequently ruled for a time by his general Seleukos and his descendants, what is known as the Seleucid Empire. However, another Iranian people, the Parthians, founded a new state in what had been eastern Persia. Its founder was one Arsaces I who established the new Parthian state in 248-247 B.C.E. As time passed, the Parthian Empire gradually conquered all of the Seleucid Empire except the regions along the Mediterranean coast which were conquered in turn by the Romans.


By Robert Hand, MA

Plato, Especially with Respect to Astrology.

We first see evidence of applications of philosophical principles that could be relevant to astrology in the writings of Plato (.428 - .327 BCE). We may also see them in the fragments left by the Pythagoreans, but recent scholarly work has questioned the antiquity of these fragments such that they may be after Plato rather than before him. So we will start with Plato who, in any case, was strongly connected with the Pythagorean tradition whatever it may have consisted of in these early days.